“ Er meint nicht nur Monument Valley, sondern die gesamte Navajo Nation Reservation. Das Indianerreservat ist ungefähr so groß wie Bayern. Die USA betrieben in den Jahren nach keine gezielte Indianerpolitik. Viele Indianer hatten am Kampf um die Unabhängigkeit teilgenommen, zahlreiche. Indianer in Nord- und Südamerika haben bereits früh vor der Corona-Krise gewarnt. Nun fühlen sie sich im Stich gelassen – dabei sind sie.
Wie Indianerreservate in Amerika von der Pandemie betroffen sindIndianer ist die Bezeichnung für die Ureinwohner Amerikas, welche den Indianerreservat der USA inne und sind zahlenmäßig die größte indianische Nation. Liste der Indianerreservate in den USA (unvollständig). Inhaltsverzeichnis A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z. Nachdem in den USA die Regierung dazu überging, mit den Indianern keine Verträge mehr abzuschließen, war.
Indianerreservate Usa Navigation menu VideoWie die Europäer Amerika erobern I Geschichte einfach erklärt
Bei der Auszahlungsquote handelt es sich um jenen Anteil des Einsatzes, kann durch eine der angebotenen Zahlungsmethoden Indianerreservate Usa auf. - InhaltsverzeichnisIhr Leben ist jedoch nach wie vor geprägt von Rassendiskriminierung und Autoschpile.
This situation prevails in connection with Indian gaming because federal legislation makes the state a party to any contractual or statutory agreement.
Finally, other-occupancy on reservations maybe by virtue of tribal or individual tenure. There are many churches on reservations; most would occupy tribal land by consent of the federal government or the tribe.
BIA agency offices, hospitals, schools, and other facilities usually occupy residual federal parcels within reservations. Many reservations include one or more sections about acres of school lands, but those lands typically remain part of the reservation e.
As a general practice, such lands may sit idle or be grazed by tribal ranchers. When the Europeans discovered the "New World" in the fifteenth century, the land that was new to them had been home to Native Peoples for thousands of years.
The American colonial government determined a precedent of establishing the land sovereignty of North America through treaties between countries.
This precedent was upheld by the United States government. As a result, most Native American land was "purchased" by the United States government, a portion of which was designated to remain under Native sovereignty.
The United States government and Native Peoples do not always agree on how land should be governed, which has resulted in a series of disputes over sovereignty.
The Black Hills are sacred to the Sioux as a place central to their spirituality and identity,  and contest of ownership of the land has been pressured in the courts by the Sioux Nation since they were allowed legal avenue in During President Barack Obama's campaign he made indications that the case of the Black Hills was going to be solved with innovative solutions and consultation,  but this was questioned when White House Counsel Leonard Garment sent a note to The Ogala people saying, "The days of treaty-making with the American Indians ended in ; While the Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolution, addressed land sovereignty disputes between the Crown and the American colonies , it neglected to settle hostilities between indigenous people—specifically those who fought on the side of the British , as four of the members of the Haudenosaunee did—and colonists.
Unenthusiastic about the treaty's conditions, the state of New York secured a series of twenty-six "leases", many of them lasting years on all native territories within its boundaries.
The other two tribes followed with similar arrangements. The Holland Land Company gained control over all but ten acres of the native land leased to the state on 15 September Despite Iroquois protests, federal authorities did virtually nothing to correct the injustice.
After Indian complaints, a second Treaty of Buffalo was written in in attempts to mediate tension. These agreements were largely ineffective in protecting Native American land.
By eighty percent of all Iroquois reservation land in New York was leased by non-Haudenosaunees. The Hopi reservation is 2, The Hopi, also known as the Pueblo people, made many spiritually motivated migrations throughout the Southwest before settling in present-day Northern Arizona.
The two tribes peacefully coexisted and even traded and exchanged ideas with each other; However, their way of life was threatened when the "New people", what the Navajo called white settlers,  began executing Natives across the continent and claiming their land, as a result of Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Act.
This march is similar to the well known Cherokee "Trail of Tears" and like it, many of the tribe did not survive the trek. The roughly 11, tribe members were imprisoned here in what the United States government deemed an experimental Indian reservation that failed because it became too expensive, there were too many people to feed, and they were continuously raided by other native tribes.
The term reservation is one that creates territorialities or claims on places. This treaty gave them the right to the land and semi-autonomous governance of it.
The Hopi reservation, on the other hand, was created through an executive order by President Arthur in A few years after the two reservations were established, the Dawes Allotment Act was passed under which communal tribal land was divvied up and allocated to each household in an attempt to enforce European-American farming styles where each family owns and works their own plot of land.
This was a further act of enclosure by the US government. Each family received acres or less and the remaining land was deemed "surplus" because it was more than the tribes needed.
This "surplus" land was then made available for purchase by American citizens. The land designated to the Navajo and Hopi reservation was originally considered barren and unproductive by white settlers until when prospectors scoured the land for oil.
The mining companies pressured the US government to set up Native American councils on the reservations so that they could agree to contracts, specifically leases, in the name of the tribe.
The dangers of radiation exposure were not adequately explained to the native people, who made up almost all the workforce of these mines, and lived in their immediate adjacency.
As a result, some residents who lived near the uranium projects used the quarried rock from the mines to build their houses, these materials were radioactive and had detrimental health effects on the residents, including increased rates of kidney failure and cancer.
During extraction some native children would play in large water pools which were heavily contaminated with uranium created by mining activities.
Many years later, these same men who worked the mines died from lung cancer, and their families received no form of financial compensation.
In , the Church Rock uranium mill spill was the largest release of radioactive waste in US history.
The spill contaminated the Puerco River with 1, tons of solid radioactive waste and 93 million gallons of acidic, radioactive tailings solution which flowed downstream into the Navajo Nation.
The Navajos used the water from this river for irrigation and their livestock but were not immediately informed about the contamination and its danger.
After the war ended, the American population boomed and energy demands soared. The utility companies needed a new source of power so they began the construction of coal-fired power plants.
They placed these power plants in the four corners region. In the s, John Boyden, an attorney working for both Peabody Coal and the Hopi tribe, the nation's largest coal producer, managed to gain rights to the Hopi land, including Black Mesa, a sacred location to both tribes which lay partially within the Joint Use Area of both tribes.
This case is an example of environmental racism and injustice, per the principles established by the Participants of the First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit,  because the Navajo and Hopi people, which are communities of color, low income, and political alienation, were disproportionately affected by the proximity and the resulting pollution of these power plants which disregard their right to clean air, their land was degraded, and because the related public policies are not based on mutual respect of all people.
The mining companies, however, wanted more land but the joint ownership of the land made negotiations difficult. At the same time, Hopi and Navajo tribes were squabbling over land rights while Navajo livestock continuously grazed on Hopi land.
Boyden took advantage of this situation, presenting it to the House Subcommittee on Indian Affairs claiming that if the government did not step in and do something, a bloody war would ensue between the tribes.
Congressmen agreed to pass the Navajo-Hopi Land Settlement Act of which forced any Hopi and Navajo people living on the other's land to relocate.
This affected 6, Navajo people and ultimately benefitted coal companies the most who could now more easily access the disputed land.
Instead of using military violence to deal with those who refused to move, the government passed what became known as the Bennett Freeze to encourage the people to leave.
The Bennett Freeze banned 1. This was meant to be a temporary incentive to push tribe negotiations but lasted over forty years until when President Obama lifted the moratorium.
Much of what is now Oklahoma was considered Indian Territory from the s. The tribes in the area attempted to join the union as the native State of Sequoyah in as a means of retaining control of their lands, but this was unsuccessful and the lands were merged into Oklahoma with the Enabling Act of This act had been taken to disestablish the reservation in order for the foundation of the state to proceed.
Oklahoma that the eastern area- about half of the modern state- never lost its status as a native reservation.
This includes the city of Tulsa. Among other effects, the decision potentially overturns convictions of over a thousand cases in the area involving tribe members convicted under state laws.
Many Native Americans who live on reservations deal with the federal government through two agencies: the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Indian Health Service.
The standard of living on some reservations is comparable to that in the developing world , with issues of infant mortality,  low life expectancy, poor nutrition, poverty, and alcohol and drug abuse.
It is commonly believed that environmentalism and a connectedness to nature are ingrained in the Native American culture. In recent years, cultural historians have set out to reconstruct this notion as what they claim to be a culturally inaccurate romanticism.
In , the Seminole tribe in Florida opened a high-stakes bingo operation on its reservation in Florida. The state government of Florida attempted to close the operation down but was stopped in the courts.
In the s, the case of California v. Cabazon Band of Mission Indians established the right of reservations to operate other forms of gambling operations.
In , Congress passed the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act , which recognized the right of Native American tribes to establish gambling and gaming facilities on their reservations as long as the states in which they are located have some form of legalized gambling.
Today, many Native American casinos are used as tourist attractions, including as the basis for hotel and conference facilities, to draw visitors and revenue to reservations.
Successful gaming operations on some reservations have greatly increased the economic wealth of some tribes, enabling their investment to improve infrastructure, education, and health for their people.
Serious crime on Indian reservations has historically been required by the Major Crimes Act , 18 U. Tribal courts were limited to sentences of one year or less,  until on 29 July , the Tribal Law and Order Act was enacted which in some measure reforms the system permitting tribal courts to impose sentences of up to three years provided proceedings are recorded and additional rights are extended to defendants.
The Department of Justice recognizes the unique legal relationship that the United States has with federally recognized tribes.
As one aspect of this relationship, in much of Indian Country, the Justice Department alone has the authority to seek a conviction that carries an appropriate potential sentence when a serious crime has been committed.
Our role as the primary prosecutor of serious crimes makes our responsibility to citizens in Indian Country unique and mandatory.
Accordingly, public safety in tribal communities is a top priority for the Department of Justice. Emphasis was placed on improving prosecution of crimes involving domestic violence and sexual assault.
Passed in , Public Law PL gave jurisdiction over criminal offenses involving Indians in Indian Country to certain States and allowed other States to assume jurisdiction.
Subsequent legislation allowed States to retrocede jurisdiction, which has occurred in some areas. Some PL reservations have experienced jurisdictional confusion, tribal discontent, and litigation, compounded by the lack of data on crime rates and law enforcement response.
As of , a high incidence of rape continued to impact Native American women. A survey of death certificates over a four-year period showed that deaths among Indians due to alcohol are about four times as common as in the general US population and are often due to traffic collisions and liver disease with homicide , suicide , and falls also contributing.
Deaths due to alcohol among American Indians are more common in men and among Northern Plains Indians. Alaska Natives showed the least incidence of death.
Gang violence has become a major social problem. Native American Tribes have recently started to become considered federally recognized tribes that are capable of exercising the rights of self-governance.
These exercises include but are not limited to the ability to pass laws, regulate power and energy, create treaties, and have tribal court hearings.
Media related to Indian reservations at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about Native American reservations in the United States.
For a similar concept in Canada, see Indian reserve. For other uses, see Indian reserve disambiguation.
Not to be confused with Reservation in India. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
July Main article: Indian removal. Main article: Black Hills Land Claim. The neutrality of this article is disputed.
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December Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: McGirt v. See also: Modern social statistics of Native Americans.
Political movements. Ethnic subdivisions. English American English Native American languages. Neighborhoods Societal statistics Reservations Tribal disenrollment Reservation poverty.
Main article: Native American gaming. Department of the Interior. Retrieved 8 August Der Besuch von Internatsschulen führte bei indianischen Kindern, die schon sehr früh aus ihrem vertrauten soziokulturellen Milieu herausgerissen wurden und meist jahrelang ihre Familie nicht sehen konnten, oft zu negativen psychischen und sozialen Folgeerscheinungen.
Bis war es in Kanada Praxis, dass die Kinder bei teilweise nomadisch lebenden Gruppen das ganze Jahr über in der Internatsschule bleiben mussten.
Erst ab wurde diese Praxis revidiert. Um wurden Fälle von sexuellem Missbrauch an solchen Schulen publik. Der jeweilige Stamm vergibt seinen Mitgliedern Nutzungsrechte.
Diese Handhabung repräsentiert das traditionelle Kollektivsystem der Indianer. Im Osage -Reservat liegt er sogar beinahe bei hundert Prozent.
Das meiste Land wird treuhänderisch vom BIA verwaltet. Aufgrund des Sonderstatus der Indianer zahlen individuelle Landbesitzer keine Grundsteuern.
Da die Parzellen zu klein für Selbstversorgung sind und ohnehin oft wenig Interesse an der Landwirtschaft besteht, bedeutet die Verpachtung die einzige Ertragsmöglichkeit.
Aufgrund der vielen verschiedenen Entstehungsgeschichten der Reservate in Kanada Verträge, Erlasse lassen sich kaum allgemeingültige Aussagen machen.
Die meisten Ethnien haben eine Verfassung, die auf der US-amerikanischen basiert. Die Rechtsprechung der Stammesregierung ist jedoch stark eingeschränkt.
Noch immer stehen viele Reservate unter der Verwaltung oder unter der Aufsicht des BIA, das oft gegen die Interessen der Indianer handelt, obwohl seine Leitung seit in indianischer Hand ist.
Die Volkszählung von in Kanada nennt Reservate, Indianerreservate bestehen unter folgenden Bezeichnungen in einigen Staaten Nord- und Südamerikas: Kanada : Indian reserve bzw.
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Rocky Boys. Lower Sioux. Cheyenne River. Standing Rock. Tohono o'odham. Turtle Mountains. Fort Berthold. Fort Peck. Walker River.
Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. Lebensjahres an Krankheiten, die mit Alkohol verbunden sind fast 5mal höher als im Durchschnitt.
Auf diesem Gebiet leben Sie kontrollieren ihr Reservat in Eigenregie. Die Hauptstadt der Navaho ist Window Rock. Sie besteht aus zahlreichen Sozialbauten, aus einigen Buden und anderen Gebäuden.
Die Stadt liegt in einem Talkessel. Arbeitslose säumen die Supermärkte. Alkohol ist verboten, weshalb man ein Gebräu aus Wasser und Haarspray für 2 Dollar trinkt.
Der Rausch tritt nach wenigen Schlucken ein. Dieses Gemisch ist gesundheitsschädlich, aber woher das Geld für lizenzierten Alkohol nehmen, den es erst 10 Kilometer von der Stadt entfernt gibt.
Nicht in den Städten leben die meisten Navaho, sondern in ländlichen Gegenden. Die Navaho haben zwar kaum Geld, ihr Reichtum ist ihre Herde.
Auch als reich gelten jene, die Rituale beherrschen. Der Stamm der Navaho hat die Organisation selbst in die Hand genommen. Die staatlichen Zuschüsse werden zielgerichtet eingesetzt.
Sie gehen an verarmte Familien, um ihnen einen Neuanfang aus eigener Kraft zu finanzieren. Betroffene und Sozialarbeiter stellen gemeinsam einen Plan auf, der ihnen aus der Not hilft.
Sie erhalten Weiterbildungen, Entschuldung und Entziehungskuren, um sie aus der sozialen Abhängigkeit zu führen.
Ein jeder Navaho kann in der Reservation bleiben. Hier können sie Navaho sprechen und an allen traditionellen Zeremonien teilnehmen.
Auf diese Weise können sie eine Form von Würde spüren, die ihnen der Staat schon lange versagt. Sie können leben, wohnen, sprechen und ihren Glauben bewahren, wie ihre Ahnen.
Warum das BIA so wie oben beschrieben reagiert, liegt einfach daran, dass es dem Innenministerium untersteht, an das wiederum Abteilungen für Bergbau, Stromversorgung, Wasserkraft Zwischen dieser Seite und der Seite Jahrhundert variieren die Zahlen.
Auf letztgenannter Seite sind die Zahlen von und hier - auf dieser Seite - sind die Zahlen aus dem Jahre